1914-25 | 1938-39 | 1940 | 1941 | 1942 | 1943 | 1944 | 1945

KEY:  Rhydymwyn  UK  Europe  World



The French used tear gas grenades against the Germans.


The Germans used chemical irritants against the French at Neuve Chapelle.


31 Jan

The Germans used tear gas howitzer shells against the Russians at Bolimov (Bolimów) in central Poland.


The Germans used improved tear gas at Nieuport, in Flanders, against the French.

22 Apr

The Germans used chlorine from canisters at the Second Battle of Ieper/Ypres in Flanders.

24 Sep

The British used chlorine from cylinders at the Battle of Loos.



Phosgene attacks were widely used by both sides.



The Germans began using mustard gas at Riga, in Latvia, against the Russians, leading to widespread use on both sides fired mainly from shells.



There were 188,706 British gas casualties with 8,109 deaths. Russia had 419,340 casualties and 56,000 deaths.


There was no centralized chemical warfare manufacture in the UK. All production was through a dispersed number of small manufacturers.


17 Jun

The Geneva Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare was signed by all the major powers except Japan. This prohibited the first use of such weapons but not their manufacture.


J.B.S. Haldane, the geneticist and evolutionary biologist, wrote his famous monograph Callinicus, a Defence of Chemical Weapons.


The Rhydymwyn Valley History Society is funded by:

Heritage Lottery Fund Subterranea Britannica Flintshire County Council Welsh Government


This website needs to be viewed in full landscape mode.



On tablets and phones, please rotate your device.

Use landscape mode

On desktop and laptop computers, please
maximise the window.

Use landscape mode