KEY: Rhydymwyn UK Europe World
The French used tear gas grenades against the Germans.
The Germans used chemical irritants against the French at Neuve Chapelle.
The Germans used tear gas howitzer shells against the Russians at Bolimov (Bolimów) in central Poland.
The Germans used improved tear gas at Nieuport, in Flanders, against the French.
The Germans used chlorine from canisters at the Second Battle of Ieper/Ypres in Flanders.
The British used chlorine from cylinders at the Battle of Loos.
Phosgene attacks were widely used by both sides.
The Germans began using mustard gas at Riga, in Latvia, against the Russians, leading to widespread use on both sides fired mainly from shells.
There were 188,706 British gas casualties with 8,109 deaths. Russia had 419,340 casualties and 56,000 deaths.
There was no centralized chemical warfare manufacture in the UK. All production was through a dispersed number of small manufacturers.
The Geneva Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare was signed by all the major powers except Japan. This prohibited the first use of such weapons but not their manufacture.
J.B.S. Haldane, the geneticist and evolutionary biologist, wrote his famous monograph Callinicus, a Defence of Chemical Weapons.
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